Types of fractures:
- Dento-alveolar fractures: Involves teeth, gum tissue, and surrounding bone. It may present as avulsed or subluxated teeth, gum tissue lacerations, and partial displacement of the jaw bone segment.
- Lower jaw (mandible) fractures: May involve the chin area (symphasis), the middle (body), angle, or joint (condyle) areas. Fractures are often open and occur in multiple sites.
- Upper jaw (maxilla) fractures: May involve the entire jaw or half of it. The jaw appears to have been pushed back or down.
Emergency treatment for jaw fractures:
Treatment may take place in the office under IV sedation or in the hospital under general anesthesia. The treatment involves:
- Examination of teeth around the fracture and extraction if severely damaged
- Re-aligning of teeth and fractured segments
- Holding the jaw stable using either wires (closed reduction) or plates (open reduction with internal fixation)
- Repair of any cuts or lacerations
- Jaw wiring may be required for four to six weeks, depending on type of injury. Patient will be on liquid diet for the duration of this treatment.